The Chickungunya

 Dengue and chikungunya epidemics in Thailand....

In Thailand, health authorities have reported an increase in the incidence of dengue fever and chikungunya in the country.

A. Dengue fever

From 1 January to 10 December 2018, Thai health authorities reported 80,065 cases of dengue fever, including 107 deaths, in the country's 77 provinces. This represents a 50% increase over the same period in 2017.

The five highest morbidity rates come from Nakhon Pathom province (321 cases per 100,000 population), Nakon Sawan province (258 cases per 100,000 population), Nakhon SI Thammarat province (245 cases per 100,000 population), Nakhon Nayok province (232 cases per 100,000 population), Chiang Rai province (230 cases per 100,000 population).

B. The chikungunya

In the southern provinces of Thailand in one month, the number of cases quadrupled from 538 to 2,143 by December 10, 2018.

No deaths have been reported.

In 13 provinces cases were reported. Songkla province, Satun province, Narathiwat province, Pattani province and Phuket province report the highest incidence.

The number of Chikungunya virus infections is increasing, particularly in densely populated areas.

C. Advice to travellers

There is no specific treatment against these viruses. For European tourists, the prevention of dengue fever and chikungunya therefore requires the control of the vector Aedes albopictus. The most effective way to control this mosquito is to eliminate its nesting sites (saucers, small containers, waste, tanks, vases, tires, etc.).

Travellers are advised to protect themselves from mosquito bites. The usual vector control measures should be followed:

wearing covering clothing;

mosquito repellents, containing DEET, on exposed skin;
insecticide-treated clothing and mosquito nets for napping and sleeping;

people using sunscreen should apply the repellent 20 minutes after the sunscreen.

In order to avoid as much as possible the spread of the dengue fever virus in metropolitan France, in the face of sudden onset fever and joint or muscle pain within 15 days of returning from a trip to a high-risk area, you should consult your doctor as soon as possible and report your trip.

Source : Outbreak News Today.
www.mesvaccins.net

Have your place of stay "cleaned"

 The Chikungunya - Explanation


Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease first described during an outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952. It is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. The name "chikungunya" comes from a verb in the Kimakonde language that means "to become twisted", which describes the arched appearance of those who suffer from joint pain. The virus can cause acute, subacute or chronic illness.
Chikungunya is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, often accompanied by arthralgia. Other common signs and symptoms include myalgia, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. Arthralgia is often disabling, but it usually disappears after a few days or weeks. Most patients recover completely, but in some cases arthralgia can persist for several months or even years.
Occasional cases of eye, neurological and cardiac complications, as well as gastrointestinal pain, have been reported. Serious complications are not common, but in the elderly the disease can contribute to the cause of death. Symptoms are often mild in infected people and the infection may go unnoticed or be misdiagnosed in areas with dengue fever.

Transmission

Chikungunya has been identified in about sixty countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, but also in the Americas.
The virus is transmitted from one human being to another by the bites of infected female mosquitoes. The mosquitoes implicated are most often Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, 2 species that can also transmit other viruses, including dengue fever. These mosquitoes are likely to bite during the day, although their maximum activity is mostly in the early morning and late afternoon. Both species sting outdoors, but Ae. aegypti also likes to sting indoors.
The disease usually appears between 4 and 8 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito, but the range can be from 2 to 14 days.

Processing

There is no specific drug to cure the disease. The main goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms, including arthralgia, with antipyretics, analgesics and optimal fluid intake.
Prevention and control

The presence of mosquito vector breeding sites near residential areas is a serious risk factor for chikungunya and other diseases transmitted by these species. Prevention and control rely to a large extent on reducing the number of natural and artificial water containers that support mosquito breeding. This requires the mobilization of affected communities. During outbreaks, insecticides can be sprayed to kill mosquitoes, by applying them to surfaces inside and around containers where mosquitoes land, and by treating the water in these containers to kill larvae.

To protect against chikungunya outbreaks, it is recommended to wear clothing that covers the body as much as possible and to apply a repellent to exposed areas or clothing in accordance with the instructions accompanying the product. The repellents must contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 (3-[N-acetyl-N-butyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) or icaridine (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)--1-methylpropylester). For those who sleep during the day, especially young children or sick or elderly people, insecticide-treated nets provide good protection. Mosquito spirals or other insecticide sprays can also reduce the number of bites inside buildings.

People travelling in high-risk areas should take basic precautions, including using repellents, wearing long-sleeved clothing and pants, and checking that rooms are equipped with mosquito nets to prevent mosquitoes from entering them.

Prevention and control

The presence of mosquito vector breeding sites near residential areas is a serious risk factor for chikungunya and other diseases transmitted by these species. Prevention and control rely to a large extent on reducing the number of natural and artificial water containers that support mosquito breeding. This requires the mobilization of affected communities. During outbreaks, insecticides can be sprayed to kill mosquitoes, by applying them to surfaces inside and around containers where mosquitoes land, and by treating the water in these containers to kill larvae.

To protect against chikungunya outbreaks, it is recommended to wear clothing that covers the body as much as possible and to apply a repellent to exposed areas or clothing in accordance with the instructions accompanying the product. The repellents must contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 (3-[N-acetyl-N-butyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) or icaridine (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)--1-methylpropylester). For those who sleep during the day, especially young children or sick or elderly people, insecticide-treated nets provide good protection. Mosquito spirals or other insecticide sprays can also reduce the number of bites inside buildings.

People travelling in high-risk areas should take basic precautions, including using repellents, wearing long-sleeved clothing and pants, and checking that rooms are equipped with mosquito nets to prevent mosquitoes from entering them.
Epidemic outbreaks

Chikungunya occurs in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Human infections in Africa remained at relatively low levels for a number of years, but in 1999-2000 a major outbreak occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in 2007 an outbreak occurred in Gabon.
From February 2005, a major outbreak of chikungunya occurred in the islands of the Indian Ocean. A large number of cases imported into Europe were attributed to this outbreak, most of them in 2006 when the Indian Ocean epidemic was at its height. A major outbreak of chikungunya occurred in India in 2006 and 2007. Several other countries in Southeast Asia were also affected. Since 2005, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar and Thailand have reported 1.9 million cases.

In 2007, transmission of the disease was reported for the first time in Europe, during a localized outbreak in northeastern Italy, in which 197 cases were reported, and which confirmed that outbreaks due to the Ae. albopictus mosquito could very well occur in Europe.

In December 2013, France reported 2 laboratory-confirmed indigenous cases (indigenous) of chikungunya in the French part of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. Since then, local transmission has been confirmed in more than 43 countries and territories in the Americas. This was the first documented outbreak of chikungunya by indigenous transmission in this region.

As of April 2015, more than 1,379,788 suspected cases of chikungunya had been reported in the Caribbean, Latin American countries and the United States of America. 191 deaths were also attributed to this disease during the same period. Canada, Mexico and the United States have also identified imported cases.

On 21 October 2014, France confirmed 4 cases of chikungunya infection contracted locally in Montpellier (France). In late 2014, outbreaks were reported in the Pacific Islands. An outbreak of chikungunya was recorded in the Cook Islands and Marshall Islands, while the number of cases in American Samoa, French Polynesia, Kiribati and Samoa decreased. WHO responded to small outbreaks of chikungunya in late 2015 in Dakar, Senegal, and Punjab State, India.

In the Americas in 2015, 693,489 suspected cases and 37,480 confirmed cases of chikungunya were reported to the Pan American Health Organization, with the WHO Regional Office, with Colombia bearing the heaviest burden with 356,079 cases. However, this was lower than in 2014, when there were more than 1 million cases in the region.

In 2016, there were a total of 349,936 suspected cases and 146,914 laboratory-confirmed cases reported to the PAHO Regional Office, half the burden observed the previous year. The countries with the highest number of reported cases were Brazil (265,000 suspected cases), Bolivia and Colombia (19,000 suspected cases each). Indigenous transmission of chikungunya in Argentina was first reported in 2016 following an outbreak of more than 1000 suspected cases. In the Africa Region, Kenya reported an outbreak of chikungunya with more than 1700 suspected cases. In 2017, Pakistan continues to respond to an outbreak that began in 2016.

À propos des vecteurs de la maladie

Tant Ae. aegypti que Ae. albopictus ont été mis en cause dans les flambées importantes de chikungunya. Alors qu'Ae. aegypti ne vit que dans des zones tropicales et subtropicales, Ae. albopictus se rencontre aussi dans des régions tempérées et même froides. Ces dernières décenniesAe. albopictus s'est propagé de l'Asie à certaines zones de l'Afrique, de l'Europe et des Amériques.

L'espèce Ae. albopictus prolifère dans des sites de reproduction contenant de l'eau beaucoup plus variés qu'Ae. aegypti, notamment dans des coquilles de noix de coco, des cabosses de cacao, des souches de bambou, des cavités d'arbres et des anfractuosités de roches, en plus des récipients artificiels tels que pneus de véhicules et soucoupes placées sous des pots de fleurs.

Cette diversité d'habitats explique l'abondance d'Ae. albopictus dans les zones rurales aussi bien que périurbaines et dans les parcs ombragés des villes. Ae. aegypti est davantage associé aux habitations humaines et utilise des sites de reproduction intérieurs, notamment des vases à fleurs, des citernes d'eau et des réservoirs d'eau en béton dans les salles de bain, ainsi que dans les mêmes habitats artificiels extérieurs qu'Ae. albopictus.

En Afrique, plusieurs autres moustiques vecteurs ont été impliqués dans la transmission de la maladie, notamment les espèces du groupe A. furcifer-taylori et A. luteocephalus. Il semblerait que certains animaux, y compris non-primates, des rongeurs, des oiseaux et de petits mammifères servent de réservoir.